JAMMU & KASHMIR DIVISION
Acts & Rules
- The State of Jammu & Kashmir - integral part of India - situated in the northernmost part of India - capital Srinagar (summer) & Jammu (winter).
- One of the most beautiful places in the world - snow-bound Himalayan peaks and glaciers, pristine rivers and valleys, dense coniferous forests, and fresh mountain air - popular as Heaven on Earth .
- Shares borders with Pakistan in the west, China in the north and east, and the Indian states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in the south.
- It consists of three distinct regions – Kashmir valley, Jammu, and Ladakh. The area and population of the three regions is –
Area (Sq. Miles) *
Population (2001 Census)
- Languages - Kashmiri, Dogri, Pahari, Punjabi, Gojari, Ladakhi or Bodhi, Balti, Dardic.
Districts in J & K
- The J&K divided into 22 districts and they are-districts of Jammu, Kathua, Udhampur, Poonch, Rajouri, Doda, Kishtwar*, Ramban*, Reasi*, and Samba* in Jammu Division and Srinagar, Budgam, Anantnag, Pulwama, Baramulla, Kupwara, Bandipora*, Ganderbal*, Kulgam* and Shopian* in Srinagar Division and Kargil and Leh in Ladakh Region.
* New Districts
History & Civilization
- Synthesis of religious and cultural influences down the ages - Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam.
- Earliest detailed written history - Rajtarangini - by Kalhana - 12th century A.D.
- Part of empire of Ashoka the Great - 3rd century - Buddhism arrives - flourishes under the Kushans.
- Under Vikramaditya of Ujjain - 6th century - return of Hinduism - Lalitaditya - Hindu ruler - AD 697 to 738 - Avantivarman - successor of Lalitaditya - founded Anantipur near Srinagar.
- Ganpatyar & Khir Bhawani temples - Mahabharata age.
- Gilgit manuscripts - ancient Pali (Buddhist) script.
- Trikha Shastra - origins in Kashmir - tolerant philosophy.
- Muslim Rule - 14th century onwards - arrival of Sufi Islam from Persia.
- Rishi tradition - confluence of Trikha Shastra and Sufi Islam - essence of Kashmiriyat - cultural offshoot of Indian ethos - not fundamentalism.
- Mughal suzerainty - Akbar the Great - AD 1589.
- Pathans take over after disintegration of the Mughal Empire - dark age.
- Pathans defeated by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, ruler of Punjab - AD 1814.
- Sikhs defeated by the British - Treaty of Lahore - AD 1846 - Gulab Singh, installed by the British, becomes independent ruler of Kashmir.
- Gilgit Agency under the British Political Agent - Gilgit area out of the Kashmir Court.
- Reagent appointed by the British in Jammu & Kashmir.
- Hari Singh, great grandson of Gulab Singh, succeeds in AD 1925 - continues to rule up to AD 1947.
Accession & Consolidation
- Partition of British India - 1947 - 560 semi-independent Princely States - protected by the British Empire under the Paramountcy Doctrine - 1858.
- Cabinet Mission Memorandum - India Independence Act, 1947 - end of Paramountcy - all rights of States returned - States to enter into federal or particular political arrangements with successor Government(s) of British India - India & Pakistan.
- Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir prefers Standstill Agreement with Pakistan & India. Signs Agreement with Pakistan.
- Before Agreement is signed with India, Pakistan cuts off essential supplies to Kashmir - violation of Standstill Agreement - pressure tactic to force accession.
- Pressure tactic fails - Pakistan instigates, abets and supports invasion of Kashmir by Pathan tribes - Hari Singh requests India for help - October 24, 1947.
- Partition of British India - 1947 - 560 semi-independent Princely States - protected by the British Empire under the Paramountcy Doctrine - 1858.
- National Conference - largest popular organisation - also appeals to India.
- Hari Singh writes to Lord Mountbatten, Governor General about the crisis in Kashmir - expresses accession to India - accepted by Mountbatten - October 27, 1947.
- Accession - Government of India Act, 1935 & India Independence Act, 1947 - An Indian State shall be deemed to have acceded to the Dominion if the Governor General of India has signified the acceptance of an Instrument of Accession executed by the ruler thereof.
- Authority of Hari Singh to enter into accession agreement not questioned by Pakistan - accession of Kashmir to India legal.
- India dispatch Army to repel Pathan invaders - October 27, 1947.
The United Nations
- India refers the Kashmir issue to the United Nations Security Council - January 1, 1948.
- The Council calls upon India and Pakistan - measures to improve the situation - inform about any material change - January 17, 1948.
- A three member UN Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) - look into the dispute - January 20, 1948 - membership raised - April 21, 1948.
- Emergency administration - replaced by interim Government headed by Sheikh Abdullah - March 5, 1948.
- The UNICP passed resolution - August 13, 1948 - cease-fire - withdrawal of Pak troops and all outsiders followed by reduction of Indian forces - determination of the future status of Jammu & Kashmir in accordance with the Will of the People - proposed plebiscite conditional on withdrawal of Pak troops from entire Jammu & Kashmir - never occurred.
- Cease-fire proclaimed under UN auspices - January 1, 1949.
- The UNCIP resolution - January 5, 1949 - reiterating resolution of August 13, 1948 - providing for appointment of a plebiscite administrator by the Secretary General.
- The All Jammu & Kashmir National Conference - resolution - convening a constituent assembly - adult suffrage - determining its future shape and affiliation, including its accession to India - to frame a Constitution - October, 1950.
- The Constituent Assembly formed after elections - September, 1951.
- The historic Delhi Agreement - Kashmiri leaders and the Government of India - dynamic nature of constitutional relationship between the state of Jammu & Kashmir and the Indian Union - reaffirmed its accession to India - July 24, 1952.
- The Constitution of Jammu & Kashmir adopted by the Constituent Assembly - November, 1956 - came into effect - January 26, 1957.
- The first general elections held in the State - popular Government formed by the National Conference under Sheikh Abdullah - March, 1957.
- The State Assembly - unanimously decided - amendment to the State Constitution for extension of jurisdiction of the Election Commission and Supreme Court of India over the State - 1959.
- The second general election held in the State - Sheikh Abdullah voted back to power - 1962.
Holy Relic Stolen from Hazrat Bal Shrine
- December, 1963 - unfortunate incident - the Holy Relic stolen from the Hazratbal Shrine - massive agitation launched by an action committee under the leadership of Maulvi Farroq - Holy Relic recovered and restored.
War with Pakistan
- Infiltration of intruders in Jammu & Kashmir - August, 1965 - followed by attack by the Pakistani armed forces.
- Attack repelled by the Indian armed forces.
- The Tashkent Agreement signed between India and Pakistan - January 10, 1966.
- The third general elections held for the State Assembly - Congress Government formed - March, 1967.
- The fourth general elections held - the Jamaat-E-Islami participated for the first time - won 5 seats - Congress Government formed - February, 1972.
- The historic Shimla Agreement - between India and Pakistan - all previous pronouncements on Kashmir superceded - all issues relating to Jammu & Kashmir to be settled bilaterally - the cease-fire line converted to the Line of Control (LOC) - July 3, 1972. .
- The Kashmir accord concluded - Prime Minister of India - Clock cannot be put back ; Kashmiri leadership - Accession of the state of Jammu & Kashmir to India is not a matter in issue - February, 1975.
- Sheikh Abdullah became Chief Minister - Plebiscite front found and merged with National Conference - July, 1975.
- The fifth general election held - the National Conference voted back to power - voter turnout 68% - July, 1977.
- Sheikh Abdullah passes away - September 8, 1982 - son Dr. Farooq Abdullah sworn in as Chief Minister - led the National Conference to victory in the sixth general elections - June, 1983.
- General elections to Lok Sabha held in 1984. Polling percentage 62.72.
- Governor s rule imposed in the State on 6-9-1986 followed by President s rules.
- President rules withdrawn and a coalition Government of Congress–I and NCF formed on 7-11-1986.
- Elections to the State Assembly held in March 1987 in which Congress and National conference secured 66 out of 76 seats and coalition Government formed.
- State Government resigned and General Elections to Lok Sabha held in November 1989. Polling percentage 31.61.
- Governor s rules imposed on 19.1.1990 followed by President s Rule on 18.07.1990.
- General Elections to Lok Sabha held in May 1996. Polling percentage 49.02.
- Assembly elections held in September 1996 and National Conference formed the Government. Polling percentage 54.04.
- General Elections to Lok Sabha held in February-March 1998. Polling percentage 44.42.
- General Elections to Lok Sabha held in September October 1999. Polling percentage 32.40.
- Panchayat elections held in the State during January-June, 2001. Polling percentage 53.18.
- The Lok Sabha elections were also held in 1999 in which the polling percentage was 32.40.
- The elections to the State Assembly held in 2002. The percentage of polling 44.62. The ruling party National Conference voted out. A coalition Government of Indian National Congress (I) and Peoples Democratic Party and other smaller parties formed the Government in November 2002.
- General Election to Lok Sabha held in April-May 2004. Polling percentage 35.21.
- Civic Elections held in January –February 2005. Polling percentage 48.
- Bye-elections to the four Assembly constituencies were held in April 2006 in which the polling percentage was between 62 and 76 recording the highest ever polling in the State.
- The elections to the State Legislative Assembly held in November-December 2008. Polling percentage 61.49. National Conference, being the single largest party, formed the Government in coalition with Indian National Congress.
- General Elections to Lok Sabha held in April-May 2009. Polling percentage 39.90.
Package announced by PM for various segments of society
Based on the report and recommendations of Working Group-I on ‘Confidence building measures across segment of society in the State’, a comprehensive package was announced by the Prime Minister on 25.4.08. This includes:
- A package for the return and rehabilitation of Kashmiri migrants who had to leave their homes in the wake of militant and terrorist violence in the State, and are presently living in Jammu and various other parts of the Country;
- One time cash compensation of Rs. 5 lakh to the families of the victims of militancy in lieu of employment;
- Enhancement of pension to widows of civilians killed in militancy related violence;
- Financial assistance without discrimination for the education of those orphaned in militant violence;
- A package for 1947 West Pakistan refugees comprising measures aimed at facilitating admission to their wards in professional and other educational institutions, bank loans without mortgage for taking up self-employment/business activities, vocational training for youth under the Skill development initiatives of the Ministry of Labour & Employment;
- Package for 1947 refugees from PoK amounting to Rs. 49 crore to meet their outstanding needs in respect of allotment of land and related rehabilitation measures.
Package for return and rehailitation of Kashmiri migrants
Terrorist violence/militancy in Jammu & Kashmir, particularly in its early phase, had led to large scale forced migration of members of the Kashmiri Pandit community from the Kashmir Valley. A variety of measures have been taken over the year by way of financial assistance/relief and other initiatives to provide succour and support to the affected families, within a broad policy framework that those who have migrated will eventually return to the Valley.
The Hon’ble Prime Minister during his visit to the State on April 25-26, 2008, announced, inter-alia, a package for return and rehabilitation of Kashmiri migrants who wish to return back to Valley. Following are the main components of the package:
- Assistance @ Rs. 7.5 lakh per family for repair/reconstruction for fully or partially damaged houses.
- Assistance @ Rs. 2.00 lakh per family for dilapidated/ unused houses.
- Assistance @ Rs. 7.5 lakh per family for purchase/construction of a house in Group Housing Societies for those who have sold their properties during the period after 1989 and before the enactment of “The J&K Migrant Immovable Property (Preservation, Protection and Restraint of Distress Sale) Act, 1997” on May 30, 1997.
- The returnee migrant families will be provided transit accommodation during the interim period when they undertake the reconstruction/repair of their houses. For this purpose, construction of transit accommodation at three sites has been approved. Those returnee families, who may not be accommodated in transit accommodation, would be provided rental and incidental expenses.
Continuation of Cash Relief
- Migrants families at Jammu and Delhi who are recipients of cash relief and free ration would continue to receive the same @ Rs. 5,000/- per family (including rations) for a period of two years after their return to the Valley.
- Children of migrant families will be provided assistance @ Rs. 750/- per month per child upto the age of 18 years (extendable upto the age of 21 years in exceptional cases). Assistance for professional studies under the scheme of Rehabilitation Council of J&K will also be provided to the eligible students.
- It has been decided to provide jobs to the educated among migrant youth in the State Government service and financial assistance (Grant and Loans) to unemployed to help them engage in self-employment through vocational training.
Assistance to Agriculturists/Horticulturists
- One-time financial assistance of Rs. 1 lakh would be provided to those having agriculture holdings. Assistance @ Rs.5,000/- per kanal, subject to maximum of Rs. 1.5 lakh would be provided for restoration of orchards.
Waiver of interest on loans
- Waiver of the interest component of the loans taken by Kashmiri Pandits before migration from the Valley.
Those migrant families who are interested to return to Valley and avail the facilities announced under the package are advised to furnish necessary information on the prescribed forms, given below, to the office of Relief Commissioner (Migrants) Jammu and office of Principal Resident Commissioner, Government of Jammu and Kashmir, New Delhi.
PM s Reconstruction Plan for Jammu & Kashmir
- The Prime Minister during his visit to Jammu and Kashmir on November 17-18, 2004, announced a Reconstruction Plan for Jammu and Kashmir involving an outlay of approximately Rs. 24,000 crore, which broadly includes the Projects/Schemes aimed at expanding economic infrastructure and the provision of the basic services, imparting a thrust to employment and income generation and providing relief and rehabilitation for the dislocated and the families of the victims of militancy.
- The Projects/Schemes envisaged in the Reconstruction Plan are implemented by the respective Administrative Ministries/Departments in consultation with the State Government.
- The Reconstruction Plan includes 67 projects/schemes covering 11 sectors of economy. Out of the aforesaid 67 projects/schemes, action in respect of 31 projects/schemes has been completed. Out of the remaining 36 projects/schemes, 33 projects are at various stages of implementation and 3 are in the preparatory stages.
- The progress on the implementation of the Reconstruction Plan is being monitored by Ministry of Home Affairs.
Rehabilitation Policy Dated: 31/01/2004
Level of Terrorist Violence and Security Situation in J&K - An assessment
- In 2008, the number of terrorist incidents, casualties of civilians and SF killings decreased by 35%, 42% and 32% respectively as compared to the previous year(2007).
- In 2009, the number of incidents came down by 30% with corresponding decrease in SFs killing by 15% and civilians casualties by 14% as compared to 2008.
- In 2010 the number of incidents decreased by 2% and the civilian and SFs casualties came down by 34% and 13% respectively as compared to the corresponding period in 2009.
- In 2011 the number of incidents decreased by 30%. SF’s and Civilian casualties have came down by 52% and 34% respectively as compared to the corresponding period in 2010.
- There has been 1033 grenade attacks in the year 2007, 1428 grenade attacks in 2008 and 978 in 2009. During the year 2010, 37 grenade attacks have taken place.
- The daily average of terrorist incidents is 1.93 during the year 2008 as against 3.00 for 2007. In 2009, the daily average of terrorist incidents is 1.36.
- The daily average of terrorist incidents came down from 1.93 in 2008 to 1.36 in 2009 and 1.33 in 2010.
- The daily average of terrorist incidents has came down from 1.33 in 2010 to 0.93 in 2011.
Trends of Violence In J&K
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