Left Wing Extremism Division

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Left Wing Extremism (LWE) Division

 

About the Division

This Division was created w.e.f. October 19, 2006 in the Ministry to effectively address the Left Wing Extremist insurgency in a holistic manner. The LWE Division implements security related schemes aimed at capacity building in the LWE affected States. The Division also monitors the LWE situation and counter-measures being taken by the affected States. The LWE Division coordinates the implementation of various development schemes of the Ministries/Departments of Govt. of India in LWE affected States. The States of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh are considered LWE affected, although in varying degrees.

Role and Functions of the Division 

  • Deployment of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) in LWE affected States.
  • Reimbursing security related expenditure incurred by the LWE affected States under the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) scheme.
  • Monitoring the progress in regard to assistance to the State Governments to upgrade their Special Forces under the Scheme for Special Infrastructure (SIS) in Left Wing Extremism affected States.
  • Providing assistance to the State Governments for construction/ strengthening of fortified police stations under the Scheme for Construction/ Strengthening of 400 Fortified Police Stations in LWE affected districts.
  • Providing funds to the CAPFs for Civic Action Programme in LWE affected areas.
  • Reviewing the security situation in the LWE affected States and issuing advisories and alerts to the State Governments concerned.
  • Providing assistance to State Governments for creation of operational infrastructure and logistics required to combat LWE.
  • Media and public perception management.
  • Coordinating implementation of LWE related Schemes of other Central Ministries, including the Integrated Action Plan (now renamed as Additional Central Assistance) for 88 Districts and Road Requirement Plan for 34 Districts.
  • Coordinating implementation of various development schemes, flagship programmes and distribution of titles under the Scheduled Tribes and other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, in LWE affected States.(1.46 MB)pdf File

 

Organisational Chart

 

Background

  • A number of Left Wing Extremist outfits have been operating in certain remote and poorly connected pockets of the country for a few decades now. In a significant development in 2004, the People’s War (PW), then operating in Andhra Pradesh, and the Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCCI), then operating in Bihar and adjoining areas, merged to form the CPI (Maoist) Party. The CPI (Maoist) Party, is the major Left Wing Extremist outfit responsible for majority of incidents of violence and killing of civilians and security forces and has been included in the Schedule of Terrorist Organisations along with all its formations and front organisations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.(7.74 MB) The CPI (Maoist) philosophy of armed insurgency to overthrow the Government is unacceptable under the Indian constitution and the founding principles of the Indian State. The Government has given a call to the Left Wing Extremists to abjure violence and come for talks. This plea has been rejected by them, since they believe in violence as the means to capture State power. This has resulted in a spiraling cycle of violence in some parts of India. The poor and the marginalised sections like the tribals are bearing the brunt of this violence. Many well-meaning liberal intellectuals fall prey to the Maoist propaganda without understanding the true nature of Maoist insurgency doctrine which glorifies violence and believes in adopting the military line to capture power. Between 2010 to 2015 (upto 31.12.2015) around 2162 civilians and 802 security force personnel have been killed by the Maoists in different parts of India. The majority of the civilians killed are tribal’s, often branded as ‘Police informers’ before being brutally tortured and killed. In fact, the tribal and the economically underprivileged sections, whose cause the maoists claim to espouse, have been the biggest victims of the so called ‘protracted peoples war’ of the CPI (Maoist) against the Indian state.

 

The dynamics of Maoist insurgency:

  • Some sections of the society, especially the younger generation, have romantic illusions about the Maoists, arising out of an incomplete understanding of their ideology. The central theme of Maoist ideology is violence. The Maoist insurgency doctrine glorifies violence as the primary means to overwhelm the existing socio-economic and political structures. The Peoples Liberation Guerilla Army (PLGA), the armed wing of CPI (Maoist), has been created with this purpose in mind. In the first stage of the insurgency, the PLGA resorts to guerrilla warfare, which primarily aims at creating a vacuum at the grass-roots level of the existing governance structures. This is achieved by killing lower-level government officials, police-personnel of the local police stations, the workers of mainstream political parties and the peoples representatives of the Panchayati Raj system. After creating a political and governance vacuum, they coerce the local population to join the movement. A strident propaganda is also carried out against the purported and real inadequacies of the existing state structure.
  • In areas under Maoist domination, the absence of governance becomes a self- fulfilling prophecy since the delivery systems are extinguished through killings and intimidation. This is the first step in the strategy of the Maoists to seek to control the countryside. In the meanwhile, many Front Organisations are created to facilitate mass-mobilisation in semi-urban and urban areas through ostensibly democratic means. Most of the Front Organisations are led by well-educated intellectuals with firm belief in the Maoist insurgency doctrine. These ideologues function as masks to cover the violent nature of the CPI (Maoist) ideology. They also form propaganda/disinformation machinery of the party.
  • They stridently take up issues like ‘displacement of tribals’, ‘corporate exploitation’, ‘human rights violations’ by security forces etc. and often make fantastic claims in this regard which get reported even by the mainstream media. The Front Organisations also skilfully use state structures and legal processes to further the Maoist agenda and weaken the enforcement regime. The important functions of these Organisations include recruitment of ‘professional revolutionaries’, raising funds for the insurgency, creating urban shelters for underground cadres, providing legal assistance to arrested cadres and mass- mobilisation by agitating over issues of relevance/ convenience. The Front Organisations aim to provide short-term democratic subterfuge to cover-up the totalitarian and oppressive nature of the Maoist ideology. The CPI (Maoist) also have a strategic game-plan to create a ‘United Front’ with all like-minded insurgent / terrorist outfits in India. It needs to be remembered that many of these outfits are supported by external forces inimical to India and the CPI (Maoist) consider such alliances as strategic assets.
  • In a nutshell, the CPI (Maoist), the main LWE outfit in India, aims to overthrow the existing democratic state structure with violence as their primary weapon, and mass mobilization and strategic united fronts as complementary components and plans to usher in so called ‘New Democratic Revolution’ in India.

 

THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA’S APPROACH

  • The Government’s approach is to deal with Left Wing Extremism in a holistic manner, in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights and entitlements of local communities, improvement in governance and public perception management. In dealing with this decades-old problem, it has been felt appropriate, after various high-level deliberations and interactions with the State Governments concerned, that an integrated approach aimed at the relatively more affected areas would deliver results. With this in view, a detailed analysis of the spread and trends in respect of Left Wing Extremist violence has been made and 106 districts in nine States have been taken up for special attention with regard to planning, implementation and monitoring various interventions. However, 'Police' and 'Public Order' being State subjects, action on maintenance of law and order lies primarily in the domain of the State Governments. The Central Government closely monitors the situation and supplements and coordinates their efforts in several ways. These include providing Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) and Commando Battalions for Resolute Action (CoBRA); sanction of India Reserve (IR) battalions, setting up of Counter Insurgency and Anti Terrorism (CIAT) schools; modernisation and upgradation of the State Police and their Intelligence apparatus under the Scheme for Modernization of State Police Forces (MPF scheme); re-imbursement of security related expenditure under the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme; filling up critical infrastructure gaps under the Scheme for Special Infrastructure in Left Wing Extremism affected States; providing helicopters for anti-naxal operations, assistance in training of State Police through the Ministry of Defence, the Central Police Organisations and the Bureau of Police Research and Development; sharing of Intelligence; facilitating inter-State coordination; assistance in community policing and civic action programmes etc. The underlying philosophy is to enhance the capacity of the State Governments to tackle the Maoist menace in a concerted manner. The Division also monitors the implementation of Integrated Action Plan for LWE affected Districts (now called Additional Central Assistance to LWE affected districts) and various other development and infrastructure initiatives of Govt. of India.

 

REVIEW AND MONITORING MECHANISMS

  • A number of review and monitoring mechanisms have been established by the Government of India in this regard. They include:
  • MHA is monitoring the situation on a regular basis at various levels. HM convened a meeting of the Chief Ministers of Chhattisgarh, Telangana, Odisha, Maharashtra and Jharkhand on February 9, 2015 to review 3 worst affected districts of Sukma, Bijapur and Dantewada of Chhattisgarh. HM visited Chhattisgarh on May 30-31, 2015. Meetings are taken periodically by HS with State Chief Secretaries, DsGP and the Union Ministries/Departments, DIB, DGs of the CAPFs etc on critical and important issues in order to get better operational results and speeding up the development process.
  • A Standing Committee of the Chief Ministers of the LWE affected States under the chairmanship of the Union Home Minister, to work out a coordinated policy and specific measures to deal with the Left Wing Extremism problem on the political, security and development fronts.
  • Review Group (earlier called the Task Force) under the Cabinet Secretary to review coordinated efforts across a range of development and security measures
  • An Empowered Group of Officers, headed by the Member-Secretary Niti Aayog (formerly Planning Commission), with officers from the development Ministries and the Planning Commission, to oversee effective implementation of development schemes in Left Wing Extremism affected States
  • An Empowered Committee under AS(LWE) was constituted on May 26, 2015 to review the progress of various developmental schemes/projects, with the JS (LWE) and the JS of the concerned ministries.

 

OTHER INITIATIVS

  • In order to holistically address the LWE problem in an effective manner, Government has formulated National Policy and Action Plan adopting four pronged strategy in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights & entitlement of local communities and management of public perception. The focus of the Government is to address security, development and governance deficits in 106 LWE district especially the 35 most affected LWE districts spread in 7 States.
  • Revival of Additional Central Assistance:- This has been discontinued since FY 2015-16, the issue of revival of IAP was taken up with Department of Expenditure (DoE) for LWE areas. A 3 year DPR based programme is proposed for 35 most affected LWE districts. Budgetary funding will be given @ Rs.1000 crore per year through the special assistance under Demand No.37. A onetime assistance of Rs. 1000 crores for 35 most affected LWE districts has been decided by NITI Aayog (BE 2015-16 under demand 37).
  • Revival of Special Infrastructure Scheme (SIS):- This Scheme has also been discontinued since FY 2015-16. For filling up the gaps in security related requirements of the Special Task Forces and other similar requirements of the LWE States efforts are being made to include this scheme in the umbrella Scheme namely Modernization of Police Forces. The EFC note is under preparation in Police Modernization Division.
  • RRP-II:- The LWE Division has taken another initiative of increasing road connectivity in the LWE areas. After RRP-I, a proposal for construction of 5412km road length and 126 bridges/cd in 44 districts of 09 LWE states having financial implication of Rs 11725 crores has been made.EFC prepared by MORD is under circulation.
  • GIS Mapping:- LWE Division initiated a new proposal of GIS mapping of the essential services in the 35 most affected LWE districts. A project has been initiated for mapping of financial services, school, post offices, health facilities, mobile towers, PDS services, Road and security features etc. in time bound manner. This will help to the stakeholder to take informed decision on the developmental and security related issues.
  • Mobile Towers: 175 additional Mobile Towers are proposed to be constructed in the next phase to increase mobile connectivity in the LWE areas. While more than 932 Mobile Towers have been put on air during January, 2015 to December, 2015 in the first phase.
  • A Unified Command has been set up in the States of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand , Odisha and West Bengal. The Unified Command have officers from the security establishment, besides civilian officers representing the civil administration and it will carry out carefully planned counter LWE measures.
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs has been implementing a scheme to assist the State Governments in construction/strengthening of 400 Fortified Police Stations @ Rs. 2.00 crore per police station in Left Wing Extremist affected districts on 80:20 (Centre share: State share) basis. Under the scheme, Rs. 623.88 crore has been released during the year 2010-11 to 2014-15 and in the current year upto 31.12.2015 and constructions of 282 fortified police Stations have been completed. The Ministry has taken further initiatives to go for another phase of fortification of police stations scheme in which 250 more police stations will be fortified @ Rs. 2.50 crore per police station.
  • An Empowered Group of Officers was set up at the level of the Central Government to over-ride or modify existing instructions on implementation of various development programmes and flagship schemes, having regard to the local needs and conditions in Left Wing Extremism affected areas for accelerated development.
  • The Left Wing Extremism affected States have been asked to effectively implement the provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA)(360 KB)pdf File on priority, which categorically assigns rights over minor forest produce to the Gram Sabhas.

 

IMPORTANT SCHEMES FOR LWE AFFECTED STATES

  • Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme:Under the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) scheme, funds are provided for meeting the recurring expenditure relating to insurance, training and operational needs of the security forces, rehabilitation of Left Wing Extremist cadres who surrender in accordance with the surrender and rehabilitation policy of the State Government concerned, community policing, security related infrastructure for village defence committees and publicity material.
  • Special Infrastructure Scheme (SIS):The Scheme of Special Infrastructure in Left Wing Extremism affected States was commenced in 11th five-year plan from the financial year 2008-09 with an outlay of Rs. 500 crores to cater critical infrastructure gaps of Security forces which could not be covered under any other scheme. During the 11th Plan period (2008-09 to 2011-12) an amount of Rs. 460.00 crores was allocated of which Rs. 445.82 crores was released to the 9 LWE affected States for meeting out the objects related to requirements of mobility of the police/SFs by upgrading existing roads/tracks in inaccessible areas, measures to enhance security in respect of police stations/outposts located in vulnerable areas etc. The Scheme was extended to the 12th Five Year Plan period on 02.04.2013, with an outlay of Rs. 373 crores, comprising 280 crores (75%) as Central share and Rs. 93 crores (25%) as State share. Rs. 122.13 crores were released to the LWE affected States during the years 2013-14 and 2014-15 for upgradation of training infrastructure, weaponry, equipments and fill up critical infrastructure gap of Special Forces of the States. The Scheme has been discontinued from Central assistance from the financial year 2015-16 as per recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission.
  • Integrated Action Plan (IAP)/ Additional Central Assistance (ACA) for LWE affected districts:The Planning Commission (Now NITI Aayog) had commenced the Integrated Action Plan (IAP) in 2010-11 covering 60 Tribal and Backward districts for accelerated development by providing public infrastructure and services. During financial year 2010-11, Rs. 25 crore per district were provided to 60 districts which enhanced to Rs. 30 crore per district per year from the financial year 2011-12. The Scheme was extended to 82 districts in 2012. Form the financial year 2012-13, the scheme renamed as “Additional Central Assistance (ACA) for LWE affected districts” and extended to 88 districts covering 76 LWE affected districts. The major works/projects included under IAP/ACA relate to construction of School building/ School furniture, Anganwadi centers, Drinking water facilities, construction of rural roads, Panchayat Bhawans/Community halls, Godowns/PDS shops, livelihood activities, skill development/training, minor irrigation works, electric lighting, health centres/facilities, Ashram schools, construction of toilets, multi-purpose chabutaras, passenger waiting halls, special coaching classes for students, ANM development centers, and development of play grounds etc. This scheme of ACA was under implementation up to 2014-15 and discontinued from the central assistance from the financial year 2015-16. Up to 07.01.2016 an amount of Rs. 9,059 cores has been released under IAP/ACA scheme of which Rs. 8,711.90 crores has been incurred. Out of total 1,64,859 projects taken up 1,39,729 projects have been completed by 7.1.2016.
  • Road Requirement Plan-I (RRP-I) for LWE affected areas: : The Road Requirement Plan Phase-I (RRP-I) was commenced by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways in February, 2009 for improvement of road connectivity in 34 LWE affected districts of 8 States namely, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh. Originally, the RRP-I envisaged 5,477 kms of roads, covering 1,126 kms National Highways and 4,351 kms State Road at an estimated cost of Rs. 7,300 crores. Up to 30.11.2015, 5, 092 kms road works have been awarded of which 3,858 kms completed with an expenditure of Rs. 5,262 croes.
  • Installation of Mobile Towers: The Cabinet, in its meeting held on 20.08.2014, has approved mobile towers at 2199 locations, identified by the MHA in consultation with BSNL/ State Governments in the 10 LWE affected States. Out of 2199 approved projects, 932mobile towers put on air as on 31.12.2015.
  • Scheme of Fortified Police Stations: The Ministry has sanctioned 400 police stations in 10 LWE affected States at a unit cost Rs. 2 crores under this scheme. A total of 282 of PSs have been completed, work at 118 PSs is under progress.
  • Civic Action Programme(CAP):This Scheme is under implementation from 2010-11, in LWE affected areas. Under this scheme, funds are provided to the CAPFs (CRPF, BSF, ITBP and SSB) @ Rs. 3.00 lakh per company per year for conducting welfare activities in their deployment areas in LWE affected States. This is a very successful scheme to bridge the gap between the Security Forces and the local populace and also helpful for winning the hearts and minds of the populace. In this context, funds of Rs. 17.65 crore and Rs. 19.02 crore were released to the CAPFs during the financial year 2014-15 and 2015-16 respectively. For the financial year 2016-17, an amount of Rs. 19.00 crores have been allocated as BE. The entire amount has been released to the CAPFs.

 

Conclusion

  • It is the belief of the Government of India that through a holistic approach focussing on development and security related interventions, the LWE problem can be successfully tackled. However, it is clear that the Maoists do not want root causes like underdevelopment to be addressed in a meaningful manner since they resort to targeting school buildings, roads, railways, bridges, health infrastructure, communication facilities etc in a major way. They wish to keep the population in their areas of influence marginalized to perpetuate their outdated ideology. Consequently, the process of development has been set back by decades in many parts of the country under LWE influence. This needs to be recognised by the civil society and the media to build pressure on the Maoists to eschew violence, join the mainstream and recognise the fact that the socio-economic and political dynamics and aspirations of 21st Century India are far removed from the Maoist world-view. Further, an ideology based on violence and annihilation is doomed to fail in a democracy which offers legitimate forums of grievance redressal.

Annexures:

P.S.: All references to Maoism in this portal is in the context of CPI(Maoist) and other LWE organizations included in the schedule of Terrorist organizations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

 

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